Asthma medication can be divided into two categories:
- Quick relief or rescue asthma medication
- Controller asthma medication
Quick-relief asthma medication treats acute asthma symptoms such as:
For the most part, all asthma medication is inhaled, although some do come in a liquid form and one is given as an infusion.
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Inhaled steroids are your most important asthma medication because they are the most potent and effective asthma medication available for the long term control of your asthma. The anti-inflammatory properties of inhaled steroids are responsible for for the significant improvement that is often seem with the use of this asthma medication.
Inhaled steroids prescribe to you may include:
SABAs are a type of drug class commonly used rescue for quick-relief asthma medication. This type of asthma medication is the drug of choice for the acute relief of asthma symptoms and is also used to prevent exercise induced asthma. Because this asthma medication can prevent your asthma symptoms from getting worse, it is important to always keep this asthma medication with you.
Some of the SABAs include:
This type of asthma medication is preferred when your inhaled steroids are not adequately controlling your symptoms, otherwise known as adjunctive therapy. LABAs are not used as a single asthma medication for the treatment and prevention of asthma symptoms and are not used to treat acute asthma symptoms or asthma exacerbations.
This type of asthma medication is considered an alternative treatment for patients with mild persistent asthma and can be used as adjunctive therapy with inhaled steroids. Exercise-induced asthma can also be controlled with this asthma medication.
Three leukotriene modifiers are currently available:
Oral steroids are used for the treatment of moderate and severe asthma exacerbations to help improve symptoms and prevent the late phase response of the allergic cascade. Oral steroids are only used as a controller medication after failing multiple other medications.
Anticholinergics act as a bronchodilator and are often used in combination with SABAs in the acute treatment of asthma symptoms in the emergency department or hospital. An example of an anticholinergic is Atrovent.
Cromolyn and nedocromil are considered alternative treatments for patients with mild persistent asthma. Both help prevent inflammation in the lungs. These drugs are never used for the treatment of acute asthma symptoms.
- Cromolyn Sodium (Intal)
- Nedocromil (Tilade)
A number of pharmaceutical companies have combined asthma medication products with more than one type of asthma medication in a single inhaler. Most commonly this includes an inhaled steroid plus a LABA.
The LABA widens your lung airways and the inhaled steroid decreases and prevents airway inflammation. Patients find this type of asthma medication more convenient and often feel like they have better control of their asthma.
Immunomodulators are a group of drugs that either provide long-term control of asthma or are considered steroid sparing. These medications alter your immune system's response to asthma triggers. In general, these treatments decrease your IgE response to asthma triggers.
The currently available immunomodulator is Xolair.
This works as a mild bronchodilators and os considered an alternative adjunctive treatment to be used with inhaled steroids.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Accessed: July 1, 2009. Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma